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Pitigliano rises dramatically from a tufa ridge as if carved from it, surrounded on all sides by a deep ravine sliced by Etruscan "ways" they call Via Cave. Pitligliano is located in the Upper Maremma of Tuscany. The town is known as "Piccola Gerusalemme", or "Little Jerusalem" after the large Jewish population settling here in the middle of the 16th century from the south to avoid the Vatican's Counter-reformation persecution.